General formula of alkane is C n H 2n+2. Alkanes have the general formula C n H 2n+2. Chapter 1 Alkanes 13 25 Isomers • Isomers — compounds having identical molecular formulas, but different arrangements of atoms. The general formula of alkane is C n H 2n+2. Alkanes undergo substitution reactions. Using this formula, we can write a molecular formula for any alkane with a given number of carbon atoms. B. There are three structural isomers possible with the formula C 5 H 12 as shown below. If C = 1, then; C n H 2n+2 = C 1 H 2x1+2 = CH 4. A) CH3CH2CH2CH3 B) CH2CH3CH3 C) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 D) CH3CH3 E) none of the above. Cyclic alkanes will be considered separately later in this chapter. Alkanes do not decolourise red brown colour of bromine water. There are two ways of writing a condensed structural formula.For example, butane may be written as CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 or CH 3 (CH 2) 2 CH 3. Straight-Chain Alkanes . It can be shown by following structural formula: If C = 2, then; C n H 2n+2 = C 2 H 2x2+2 = C 2 H 6. Compounds with the same molecular formula, and yet distinct structural formulas are known as structural isomers of that compound. An alkane is a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single covalent bond. Their adjacent atoms are connected with sigma bonds and form tetrahedral centers around the carbon atoms. As these bonds are all single bonds, there is free rotation around all connections. It is also possible to write the higher members of alkanes using the same principles applied as above. The following is a list of straight-chain and branched alkanes and their common names, sorted by number of carbon atoms. Name of this compound is ethane. Alkanes generally burn in air with a blue and non-sooty flame. • Structural Isomers — the atoms in each molecule are connected in a different order. The carbon is the central atom and makes four single covalent bonds to hydrogen atoms. Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon and is shown with a structural formula, a ball-and-stick model, and a space-filling model. The simplest alkane is methane, with the molecular formula CH 4. Name of this compound is methane. For example, an alkane with eight carbon atoms has the molecular formula C 8 H (2 × 8) + 2 = C 8 H 18. Which of the following is not a proper condensed structural formula for a normal alkane? The general formula for an alkane is C n H 2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. All acyclic alkanes (unbranched and branched) have the characteristic molecular formula C n H (2n + 2), where n is the number of carbon atoms in the chain. The molecular formula of C 8 H 18 may even be applied to many alkanes, each of which has unique physical, chemical , and toxicological properties. For example, an alkane with 2 (n) carbon atoms, will have 6 (2n + 2) hydrogen atoms. 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